Wasyl Halich Papers, ca. 1921-1971

Immigration History Research Center
University of Minnesota

Abstract | Provenance/Processing | Biographical Sketch | Scope and Content | Subject Inventory | Container List


IHRC #16
Halich, Wasyl
Papers, ca. 1921-1971
2.0 linear feet


Abstract

A professor of Russian and European history, Halich was born in Strilbychi, on the northern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains.  He came to the United States in 1912 and settled in Pittsburgh, PA, and attended Bloomfield College (Bloomfield, NJ), and then Dubuque College (Dubuque, IA), where he received a BA degree.  In 1929, he received his MA and in 1934, his PhD from Iowa University.  From then until his retirement, he taught at Wisconsin State University-Superior, pioneering the study of Ukrainians in America in his book Ukrainians in the United States (1933).  He remained active in many professional and Ukrainian American organizations, including the Shevchenko Scientific Society in the United States, the Ukrainian American University Professors Association, and the Wisconsin State Historical Society.

Papers include biographical information, postcards, newspaper clippings, and correspondence.  Also included is information pertaining but not limited to, agriculture in North Dakota, the Catholic Church-Oriental rites, mining industry finance and employees, Protestant churches and Protestants in Ukraine, the Surma Book and Music Company, Ukrainian history, art, music, business and agriculture, Ukrainian women, and organizations of Ukrainian Americans.  Correspondents and subjects of correspondence include Alexander Archipenko, Yaroslaw Chyz, Andrew Dubovoy, Rev. Agapius Honcharenko, Rev. Basil Kusiw, Luke Myshuha, Rev. Alex Prystay, Taras Shevchenko, and Rev. Joseph Zelechivsky.  Much of the material is related to Halich's book.  Includes English.  Inventory available.

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Provenance/Processing

Through the efforts of Professor Alexander A. Granovsky, the Halich collection was deposited in the Immigration History Research Center in July, 1968 by Wasyl Halich. The collection consists of 2.0 linear feet of correspondence, newspaper clippings (primarily in Ukrainian) and handwritten notes in English. It was processed during 1974.  Inventory prepared for the Internet by Student Assistant Jessica Roskoski and Assistant Curator Heather Muir in 2001.

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Biographical Sketch

Wasyl Halich was born on April 6, 1896, in the village of Strilbychi, near the city of Stary Sambir, on the northern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains. He was one of nine children, three boys and six girls. Young Halich did well in school and occasionally his parents mentioned their desire to give him a higher education. The matter was dropped, however, for they could not afford such a luxury.

In the autumn of 1912, the sixteen year old Halich arrived in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to join his uncle Andriy Movchko, and to continue his education.  Within a few days of his arrival, Halich met with Reverend D. Halenda at a Ukrainian Presbyterian Mission, and became interested in the Evangelical movement. It was in 1915 that Halich told Reverend Halenda about his plans to become a minister, and the latter became interested in his project.

Halich’s original plan was to go to Dubuque College, Dubuque, Iowa. However, Bloomfield College in Bloomfield, New Jersey, had a course in Ukrainian language and literature, taught by Reverend Basil Kusiw of Newark, New Jersey, which already had some Ukrainian students. It was there that Halich went in September of 1915, to study for three years. In 1918, he transferred to Dubuque and remained there to finish his high school and college with a B.A. degree, financing his own way through.

After his graduation in 1924, Halich secured a teaching position in southern Wisconsin, in the small town of Elkhorn, where he taught high school history and coached football for three years. In 1927, he accepted a position at Central High School in Superior, Wisconsin, where he spent many years. During the summers, Halich attended Iowa University, where he received an M.A. degree in 1929, in history and political science. Continuing his studies at Iowa University, he earned a Ph.D. degree in 1934; his doctoral dissertation was titled “Economic Aspects of Ukrainian Activities in the United States.”

In 1935, Wasyl Halich visited his birthplace where his mother and brothers and sisters were still living. He spent nearly a month there, and upon his return to the United States, married Margaret B. Mitchell, a high school English instructor.

The last twenty years of his teaching career were spent at Wisconsin State University, Superior, where he attained the rank as professor. His field was Russian and European history. In his spare time, during the years 1930-1966, Halich gave many talks on historical topics in Wisconsin, Upper Michigan and Minnesota.

At the suggestion of John Harrison Thornton, his doctoral advisor, Halich pioneered the study of Ukrainians in American and published a book Ukrainians in the United States in 1937.

In addition to his native Ukrainian, Halich has studied many languages, including English, Russian, Polish, German, Greek, Latin and French. His articles have appeared in the Ukrainian Quarterly, Agricultural History, Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, North Dakota History, and in the Almanac and the Jubilee Book of the Ukrainian National Association. Also, his articles on Ukrainian Americans appeared in Svoboda, Ukrainian Weekly and Narodne Slovo. In addition to that, Halich took part in cooperative translation of Michael Hrushevsky’s History of Ukraine.

During his academic career, Wasyl Halich earned listings in Who Knows What, Who’s Who in Education and at the time of his retirement, he received the Governor’s Certificate of Meritorious Service and the title Professor Emeritus of History. He still retains membership in the Wisconsin State Historical Society, the American Historical Association, National Geographical Society, the Shevchenko Scientific Society in the United States, and the Ukrainian American University Professors Association.

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Scope and Content

The collection as acquired was in no particular order: therefore, it was organized into three basic categories: I. Biography (folder 1), II. Ukrainians in the United States: personal notes, papers and correspondence pertaining to the book (folders 2-33), III. General correspondence, newspaper clippings, etc.: materials which do not pertain to Ukrainians in the United States (folders 34-39).

Section I: Biography
    Biographical material found here was ordered chronologically.

Section II: Ukrainians in the United States
    Materials in section II were divided by chapters according to Halich’s book, Ukrainians in the United States. Occasionally, however, it was impossible to do that, for the author used certain materials in many chapters. The materials are arranged chronologically within the folders.

Section III: General correspondence, newspaper clippings, etc.
    Materials, arranged chronologically with no subject division, include information on Ukrainian art, politics, religion, etc.

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Subject Inventory

The following is a guide, not a complete index, to certain persons, subjects and associations in the collection.

Agricultural History Society
 Folder 11

Agriculture- U.S.- North Dakota
 Folders 7, 10-12

Archipenko, Alexander
 Folders 27-31

Avramenko, Vasil
 Folders 26, 28-30

Barabash, Captain John
 Folders 27-28

Catholic Church- Oriental Rites
 Folders 6, 13, 16-17, 22-24, 36

Chicago Tribune
 Folder 20

Chicago, World’s Fair, 1933
 Folders 27-28

Chyz, Yaroslav
 Folders 5, 11, 27

Displaced Persons
 Folder 37

Dubovoy, Andrew
 Folders 7, 10-11, 14, 23, 25, 34-37

Dukhobors
 Folder 23

George Washington Bicentennial, 1932
 Folder 27

Granovsky, Alexander A.
 Folder 38
The Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania
 Folders 7, 23, 29

Honcharenko, Reverend Agapius
 Folders 2, 11, 13, 23

Iowa, State University of
 Folders 11, 33

Kusiw, Reverend Basil
 Folders 2, 29, 34

“Mazeppa”
 Folders 27-30

Mining Industry and Finance- Employees
 Folders 7-10

Minnesota, University of
 Folders 36, 38

Minnesota, University of. Immigration History Research Center
 Folder 38

Myshuha, Luke
 Folders 2, 7, 11,14, 16, 18, 20

“Natalka Poltavka”
 Folder 30

National Broadcasting Company, Inc.
 Folder 30

North Dakota, State Historical Society of
 Folder 7

Orthodox Eastern Church
 Folders 2-6, 16, 22-23

Protestant Churches
 Folders 2, 22-23, 34, 37-38

Protestants in Ukraine
 Folders 22, 24, 34

Prystay, Reverend Alex
 Folders 7, 10, 14, 22, 31, 33

Repatriation
 Folders 2,25

Russell Sage Foundation
 Folder 33

Russian Brotherhood Organization
 Folders 16-17

Sadovsky Family
 Folder 6

Shevchenko, Taras
 Folders 2, 27, 35

Shumeyko, Stephen
 Folders 30, 37

Sikorsky Aviation Corporation
 Folder 13

Simenovich, Vladimir
 Folders 7, 25

Stasiuk, Platon
 Folders 14, 33

Steamship Agents
 Folders 2, 5, 14

Sten, Anna
 Folders 29, 30

Surma Book and Music Company
 Folders 14-15, 27, 29, 34

Ukraine- History
 Folders 2-6

Ukraine, Western (Ruthenia)- History
 Folders 2-3, 5-6, 35-36

Ukrainian National Association
 Folders 18-19

Ukrainians in the U.S.- Agriculture
 Folders 7-13

Ukrainians in the U.S.- Art
 Folders 26-31, 34-36

Ukrainians in the U.S.- Business
 Folders 13-15

Ukrainians in the U.S.- Education
 Folders 7, 13, 16

Ukrainians in the U.S.- Societies, Etc.
 Folders 7, 16-21

Ukrainians in the U.S.- Songs and Music
 Folders 26-31, 35

Ukrainians in the U.S.- Sports
 Folder 32

Ukrainians Women’s League
 Folder 20

United Ukrainian Organizations
 Folders 16-21

University of Chicago Press
 Folders 33-34, 36

Western Pennsylvania Historical Survey
 Folders 5, 33

Wilson, John B.
 Folder 2

Women, Ukrainian
 Folders 8, 13, 20

Zelechivsky, Reverend Joseph
 Folders 13, 22, 29, 35

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Container List

Folder Contents
1 Biography, 1932-1969
Included in this folder is Wasyl Halich’s biography and materials pertaining to Halich’s research and his book.
2 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter I, 1921-1937
Materials in this folder include correspondence with Luke Myshuha, editor-in-chief of Svoboda re the historical background of Ruthenia and Ruthenians; Paul Bacon, editor-in-chief of Modern Progress, and others. Also included is an article by Herbert Adams Gibbons, “The Ukraine and the Balance of Power,” “The Reign of Terror in the Ukraine” by Milton Wright, “The Reports of the Ukrainian Evangelical Reformed Church of the Prague Conference, September 25, 1936” by Reverend Basil Kusiw; statistical data supplied by the United States Department of Labor, Immigration and Naturalization Service; and numerous newspaper clippings pertaining to the history of Ukraine, Cossacks, etc.
3-4 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter I, n.d.
These folders contain Halich’s personal notes for Chapter I. These notes refer to the historical background of Ukraine, her name, origin, location in Europe, her political and social structure, references on Ukrainians in Russia, Poland, and modern European history. All notes are handwritten and in English.
5 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter II, 1924-1936
Correspondence with the Western Pennsylvania Historical Survey, Hamburg-American Line-North German Lloyd Company, and Frank D. Chester. Also several newspaper clippings re the situation of Soviet Ukraine, press reports on Ukraine and Ukrainians, etc.
6 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter II, n.d.
Materials found here carry information concerning reasons for immigration to the United States, economic and social situations in Ukraine, religious persecution, and several newspaper articles by immigrants describing their experiences in coming to the United States. This folder also contains information re the Sadovsky family, one of the earliest Ukrainian immigrant families in this country.
7 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter III, 1924-1937
Included in this folder is correspondence with Reverend Alex Prystay, Reverend Leo Chaplesky, Luke Myshuha, Andrew Dubovoy, the New York Public Library, American Geographical Society, The Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, State Historical Society of North Dakota, and many others. Also included are newspaper clippings pertaining to the educational and occupational progress made by Ukrainians in the United States.
8 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter III, n.d.
Halich’s notes pertaining to Ukrainians in American industrial life. Materials contain statistical data on the number of Ukrainians immigrants in the United States, attitudes toward women, coal mining, problems of illiteracy, employment, etc. Also included in this folder is Orest Kyrylenko’s Ukraintsi v Amerytsi.
9 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter III, n.d.
Material in this folder consists of Halich’s notes, including general information on immigrants, copies of statistical data and tables, etc. Many of the references were based on U.S. Senate documents and reports.
10 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter IV, 1931-1933
This folder consists of materials pertaining to farming in the United States. Included in correspondence with numerous individuals such as Ed Simbalenko, Andrew Dubovoy, Reverend Alex Prystay, Reverend Theodore Halenda, Reverend John Senchuk, and many others. Newspaper clippings concerning Ukrainian farms in North Dakota, Ukrainian farmers, miners, etc., are also included. 
11 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter IV, 1934-1937
Correspondence with Reverend Alex Prystay, Paul Londiak, I. Diaczuk, Andrew Dubovoy, Luke Myshuha, Yaroslav Chyz, the Agricultural History Society, the State University of Iowa, and others. Also found in this folder are newspaper clippings with reports on farming in North Dakota, “Spomynky Agapia Honcharenka” and a 1931 map of North Dakota with the Ukrainian settlements indicated by Halich.
12 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter IV, n.d.
Halich’s notes contain abstracts of the 1930 census of the United States, lists of Ukrainian professionals in Max and Wilton, North Dakota; Ukrainian farmers in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Massachusetts, etc. Also a “Railroad Commissioner’s Map of North Dakota.”
13 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter V, 1926-1933
Material in this folder pertains to Ukrainian American professionals and businessmen. It includes correspondence with Reverend Joseph Zelechivsky; Reverend V. Machnik; Igor I. Sikorsky; Dr. George Danys, the city editor of Oakland Tribune, and others. Newspaper clippings carry advertisements, lists of Ukrainian professionals in the United States and Canada, etc. Also found here are The Interpreter, a 1927 Ukrainian Semi-Annual by Reverend Theodore Dwulit, picture of Reverend Agapius Honcharenko, and other miscellaneous items.
14 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter V, 1934-1937
Included in this folder is correspondence with Platon Stasiuk, one of the most prominent Ukrainian businessmen in New York; Reverend Alex Prystay; Luke Myshuha; G. Potapenko and Andrew Dubovoy. Also included is a list of Ukrainian American Professionals [sic], 1936, and newspaper clippings pertaining to the organizational work of Ukrainian American professionals.
15 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter V, n.d.
Halich’s notes pertaining to Chapter V included information re Ukrainian American cooperative stores, Ukrainian American banks, factories, etc. Also included are lists of Ukrainian teachers in the United States, businesses in New York City, and newspaper clippings advertising their businesses. 
16 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter VI, United Ukrainian Organizations, 1931-1937
This folder consists of correspondence with Peter Smey, secretary of the Russian Brotherhood Organization of the United States of America; John Masich; Andrew Petach; Luke Myshuha; Theodore Luciw; and a publication entitled, “Open Letter to Mr. William Randolph Hearst” from the Historical Section of the Ukrainian Club of Los Angeles. Also included are statements, protocols of the United Ukrainian Organizations, a “Memorandum of Ukrainian Organizations to the President of the United States concerning the recognition of the Union of Socialist Soviet [sic] Republics,” press reports on Ukraine and Ukrainians, and other miscellaneous materials.
17 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter VI, United Ukrainian Organizations, n.d.
Halich’s notes in this folder pertain to Ukrainian organizations in the United States. Included are by-laws of the following organizations: Juvenile Society of the United Societies of Greek Catholic Religion (U.S.G.C.R.), Russian Brotherhood Organization of United States of America, United Societies of Greek Catholic Religion of United States of America, and Juvenile Division of the Russian Brotherhood Organization of the United States of America. Also included are the Book of Rates and Options of U.S.G.C.R, newspaper clippings, and membership applications for Greek and Russian Brotherhood Organizations.
18 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter VI, Ukrainian National Association, 1931-1937
Material in this folder pertains to the largest Ukrainian organization in the United States. Included are letters from Luke Myshuha and numerous newspaper clippings. Financial reports, minutes of the Executive Committee of the UNA, list of addresses of UNA branches, press reports, etc. are also included.
19 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter VI, Ukrainian National Association, n.d.
Halich’s notes re the UNA, newspaper clippings, Ukrainian National Association Rate Book, a report of the Executive Committee of the UNA for the XIX Congress in Washington, D.C., 1937, and an application for membership are found in this folder.
20 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter VI, Ukrainian Women’s Organizations, 1932-1937
Material in this folder consists of Halich’s notes and newspaper clippings. Included are financial statements, resolutions, articles re the role of Ukrainian women in political life and elsewhere, press reports on Ukraine and Ukrainians, etc.
21 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter VI, Ukrainian Youth Organizations, 1932-1936
Material in this folder consists of newspaper clippings, which include minutes from the First Congress of Ukrainian Youth in the United States (September 16 and 17, 1933, Chicago), lists of award-winners of a literary contest sponsored by the Juvenile Department of the Ukrainian Workingmen’s Association; and a copy of L.U.C. Leader, Vol. I, No. 3, November 1936.
22 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter VII, 1927-1932
Correspondence with Reverend Joseph Zelechivsky, Reverend J.A. Zuk, Reverend Alex Prystay and Reverend Basil Kusiw. Also included are newspaper clippings and pamphlets such as: Tenth Anniversary Banquet in honor of Reverend Michael Guryansky; The Ukrainian Orthodox Church of America; Album of Twenty-fifth Anniversary of Ukrainian Catholic Church of St. Nicholas, 1907-1932, Watervliet, New York; Watervliet, New York; and “The New Protestant Movement,” an article by Reverend Leo Buchak in The Presbyterian of June 18, 1931.
23 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter VII, 1933-1937
Included in this folder is correspondence with Dr. George Danys, Reverend Alexander Kuman, Reverend B. Machnyk, The Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania and others. Also included are numerous newspaper clippings, press reports, Souvenir of Twenty Fifth Anniversary of the Ukrainian Catholic Church of SS. Peter and Paul, Ambridge Pennsylvania, and Silver Jubilee of Ordination to Priesthood of Reverend Fr. Nicholas Kopachuk, Pastor of SS. Peter and Paul Church, Ambridge, Pennsylvania, etc.
24 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter VII, n.d.
Halich’s notes pertaining to religion, churches, addresses of several priests, statistical data on Ukrainian and Russian churches, etc., are found in this folder. Included also are pictures of churches.
25 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter VIII, 1931-1937
Material in this folder pertains to the Ukrainian American press. It includes a letter from Andrew Dubovoy, a partial list of periodical articles written by George Raffalovich dealing exclusively with Ukrainian affairs, several newspaper clippings, and Halich’s notes. Some of the newspaper clippings relate to political anti-Soviet demonstrations organized by Ukrainians, and reprints from the American press.
26 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter IX, 1930-1931
Primarily newspaper clippings pertaining to Ukrainian arts, music, social activities, etc. Also press reports on Ukraine and Ukrainians, “Ukrainian family on radio”- newspaper advertisements, information about Ukrainian choruses, musicians and others.
27 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter IX, 1932
This folder consists of correspondence with M. Simenovich, president of Ukrainian Chicago World’s Fair Exhibit; Yaroslav Chyz and John Barabash. Among other materials included are a series of articles “Nashi Molodi poety” (Our Young Poets), information about Taras Shevchenko, announcements about a literary contest organized by Narodna Volya, articles pertaining to a Ukrainian tribute to George Washington’s bicentennial festival, concerts of Ukrainian choruses and dancing groups, newspaper clippings about Alexander Archipenko’s art exhibition, etc.
28 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter IX, 1933
Newspaper articles about Alexander Archipenko and social activities and entertainment, reports on the Ukrainian Pavilion at the Chicago World’s Fair, Ukrainians in action against Soviet Russia, radio announcements; Vasil Avramenko’s articles about Nicholas Sadovsky, etc.
29 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter IX, 1934-1935
Material in this folder includes correspondence with numerous individuals (unidentified signatures); newspaper clippings pertaining to “Mazeppa” and other musical festivities; articles about Alexander Archipenko and his art; reports on Anna Sten, a famous Ukrainian movie star; and others.
30 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter IX, 1936-1937
Correspondence with Luke Myshuha, Andrew Dubovoy; Michael Havran; Reverend Alex Prystay and Stephan Shumeyko, editor of the Ukrainian Weekly. Also found are numerous newspaper clippings on Ukrainian arts, music, the movie “Natalka Poltavka,” etc.
31 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter IX, n.d.
Included are Halich’s notes pertaining to Ukrainian social activities, musical organizations and civic enterprises. Also included are a few undated pages of Reverend Alex Prystay’s correspondence with Halich.
32 Ukrainians in the United States - Chapter IX, Ukrainians in Sports, 1929-1937
This folder includes materials on Ukrainian sports, athletes, etc. It consists of Halich’s notes, as well as numerous newspaper clippings on such subjects as baseball, football, swimming, boxing, wrestling, etc. Also included are pictures of Bronko Nagurski and George Kojac. 
33 Ukrainians in the United States - Publication and Reviews, 1934-1938
Included in this folder is correspondence with Solon J. Buch, director of the Western Pennsylvania Historical Survey; G.J. Laing, one of the editors of the University of Chicago Press, Luke Myshuha; Reverend Alex Prystay; P. Stasiuk; Russell Sage Foundation; and many others. Also included are reviews of Ukrainians in the United States newspaper clippings, issues of the Bulletin of the State University of Iowa, etc.
34 General correspondence, newspaper clippings, etc., 1938
Correspondence with M. Petrovsky, Reverend D. Halenda, Margere Chapman, Joseph W. Felock, and several other individuals pertaining to Halich’s book, Ukrainians in the United States. Other material consists of newspaper clippings, a report of the Ukrainian Evangelical-Reformed Church, 1937 by Reverend Basil Kusiw, and other miscellaneous materials.
35 General correspondence, newspaper clippings, etc., 1939-1941
Material in this folder consists of correspondence with Reverend Joseph Zelechivsky, L. Policha, B.J. Matolicz, and others. Also found are numerous newspaper clippings on such subjects as arts, music, work of the United Ukrainian Organizations and articles “The Two Ukraines” (reprinted from The New Republic), “Stalin’s Report” (reprinted from Soviet Russia of Today), “The End of Carpathian Ukraine” by Vortigern, “The Ukrainian Nation” by Lancelot Lawton, “Ukraine” by Professor G.W. Simpson, and a list of references on Ukraine reprinted from the Nineteenth Century and After.
36 General correspondence, newspaper clippings, etc., 1943-1950
Included in this folder is correspondence with Reverend William Lesko, Andrew Dubovoy, the University of Chicago Press, re the decline in sales of his book, Murray State College, and many others. Also included are newspaper clippings on Ukrainian Easter eggs, reports on folk art, as well as such articles as “The Truth about Soviet Russia’s 14,000,000 Slaves” by Max Eastman, “I Didn’t Want My Children to Grow up in Soviet Russia” by Nina I. Alexeiev, “The Red Spy Net” by Thomas M. Johnson, “The Scared Men in the Kremlin” by John Fisher, and “Church Activities among the Ukrainian Americans” by Wasyl Halich.
37 General correspondence, newspaper clippings, etc., 1951-1967
Primarily correspondence with Reverend V. Hrabec, Andrew Dubovoy, Bohdan Z. Hordinsky, Reverend C. Sawka, Reverend G. Domashewetz, and others pertaining to Ukrainian Evangelical Churches (both in the United States and Canada), newspaper clippings, etc. 
38 General correspondence, newspaper clippings, etc., 1968-1971
Correspondence with Ivan L. Rudnytsky, Reverend Vladimir Borowsky, Surma Book and Music Company, the Ukrainian Studies Chair Fund, Inc. in New York, and others. Correspondence with Professor Alexander A. Granovsky and the University of Minnesota concerning the donation of Wasyl Halich’s personal papers to the University’s Center for Immigration Studies/Immigrant Archives. Also included are Halich’s notes, and an article entitled “Stril’bychi” in Litopys Boykivshchyny, No. 3-4, 1971.
39 Miscellaneous postcards, n.d.
This folder consists of Ukrainian Christmas and Easter postcards. 

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Last Updated:  May 31, 2001
Comments:  ihrc@tc.umn.edu